Education and Fragility Newsletter
November 2012
Knowledge Capsule
Did you know… In DRC, tens of thousands of civilians have fled since fighting between the M23 rebel group and the Congolese army resumed on 15 November. Several organisations have warned that displaced children face an increased threat of rape, abuse and recruitment. The organisation World Vision put the number of at-risk children at 200,000 in the city of Goma alone.
Sound Bite
“The real and lasting victories are those of peace, and not of war."
~Ralph Waldo Emerson

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Dear INEE Members,
Welcome to the INEE Education and Fragility Monthly Newsletter for the month of November 2012.

This newsletter contains information and resources of interest and relevance to those working in education in fragile and conflict affected contexts. It includes resources related to education, peace building and fragility; as well as information about programs that INEE member organizations are developing, and updates of the INEE Working Group (WG) on Education and Fragility. 
We encourage you to share with us any helpful resources and information that you encounter for inclusion in future updates and on the INEE website. Please forward your suggestions with related attachments and web links to
We hope that you will find this newsletter interesting and useful.

Maria Lucia Uribe Torres and No
ëmi Gerber, INEE Secretariat,
on behalf of the INEE Working Group on Education and Fragility

  In this Newsletter  
Working Group Corner
In the spotlight
Work Bench
Coming Up
  Working Group Corner  
Working Group Updates
NEW: Tertiary education programs in conflict transformation and peacebuilding

The INEE Working Group on Education and Fragility is pleased to announce the release of a database and report entitled “A Mapping Exercise: Training Programs for Teachers and Education Workers in the Field of Peacebuilding and Conflict-Transformation.”
The report and corresponding database provide an overview of Tertiary Education Programs in Conflict Transformation and Peacebuilding for teachers and other education workers. The research, which was conducted in partnership with the University of Florence, was commissioned with the purpose of getting a general overview of the types of programs available, the content, approach and materials used in these programs; and as a point of departure to identify best practices in teachers’ training programs in this area. 
The report includes an analysis of the database, description of the case studies and a set of recommendations for INEE to further work in this field. 

The database can be filtered by the type of training program (formal, non-formal, undergraduate, post-graduate), the region where the training is offered, the duration of the training, and the content areas including the skills, knowledge and pedagogical competencies covered in the training program. 

Visit the Tertiary Education Programs webpage (which includes individual profiles of the 34 programs, and of the 4 case studies) here.

Download the report here. 

Download the database here.

If you are interested to learn more about this research or to contribute to implementing the recommendations, please contact us at
Call for proposals: International symposium on education, fragility and conflict
Paris School of International Affairs (PSIA) at Sciences Po, and INEE Working Group on Education and Fragility

On April 8, 2013, the Paris School of International Affairs (PSIA) at Sciences Po in Paris, France, is hosting an international symposium on Education, Fragility & Conflict, supported by a grant from the University of Newcastle Australia and co-hosted by the InterAgency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE) Working Group on Education and Fragility.

The symposium aims to create and sustain strong bonds between the academic community and the practitioner community within international aid, through Paulo Freire’s notion of praxis, which involves reflecting critically and acting meaningfully on the world in order to change it. We expect it to be an intimate space for exchange and discussion, including about 40 participants.

To this end, we invite proposals for papers from both practitioners and researchers that engage with these topics and will provide the basis for constructive debate and discussion.

Proposals should be no longer than 500 words, and should be submitted to by Friday, 7th December. We really look forward to working with you and welcome any questions you might have (email:!

Click here for more information and to read the full call for proposals.
Call for contributions: INEE Education and Fragility Newsletter on conflict sensitive education, January 2013
INEE Education and Fragility Newsletter

For the January 2013 issue of the INEE Education and Fragility Newsletter, we would like to produce a thematic newsletter on conflict sensitive education to create more awareness about this topic, provide resources, promote publications and activities and programs undertaken by INEE members.

We welcome any contributions you may have on this theme. Contributions may take the following forms:
  • Articles, studies
  • Reports and other publications
  • Resources, tools
  • Events, courses
Please send your contributions to no later than Monday, 14th January. Please also do not hesitate to contact us should you have any questions, comments or suggestions. We look forward to receiving your contributions!
In the Spotlight
Language Matters
Karina Kleivan, IBIS

Karina Kleivan is Emergency Education Coordinator at IBIS, a Danish NGO specialising in education and particularly teacher training in Africa and Latin America.  IBIS is a member of the Working Group on Education and Fragility.
Only too seldom do children who begin schooling in fragile and conflict-affected contexts receive instruction in their mother tongue (MT). On the contrary, the first linguistic encounter at school is more often than not with the dominant language, be it the colonial language or the ethnic majority language. Which signal does it send that ‘your language is not good enough for education’ and which effect does it have?

Any discussion on language of instruction most often takes its starting point in a scenario which is basically wishful thinking, namely the monolingual state, a construction that hardly exists, but which is still taken as the norm. Why? Maybe because acceptance of multiple languages would mean dealing with possible multiple realities, be they ethnic, cultural, historic or political, since language is never neutral – and even less so as language of instruction -  imbedded as it is with identity, memory, norms and connotations.

To read the full blog post and leave your comments, click here.

[NOTE that this blog post will go live with INEE's new website on Wednesday, 05 December 2012.]

UNHCR and the Educate A Child initiative

UNHCR is taking a key role in the Educate a Child (EAC) initiative launched this month by Qatar's Sheikha Moza bint Nasser and aimed at enrolling 172,000 refugee children in school in a dozen countries. With more than 60 million children not in school, EAC is partnering with global organisations to help achieve the Millennium Development Goal II by assisting millions of children to access quality primary education.

The first phase of the new partnership involves a US$12 million grant – half from Sheikha Moza and half from UNHCR – that the agency is using to enrol an additional 172,000 refugee children in school. The project is being implemented this year in 12 key countries, namely Chad, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan, Uganda, Syria, Yemen, Iran, Malaysia and Pakistan. This is the first stage of a five-year programme and broadened partnership which will provide refugee children with new schools, better trained teachers and education supplies, while other activities and initiatives will support continued quality education and learning.

The EAC partnership comes at an opportune time. In some refugee camps, such as Yida on the border between Sudan and South Sudan, 70 per cent of refugees are under the age of 18. "In Refugeeland there is no minister of education," UN High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres said of the millions of refugee children that fall under UNHCR's mandate. "Education is a fundamental human right that allows children to access other rights."

For more information, visit the Educate A Child website.

UNHCR is a member of the INEE Working Group on Education and Fragility.
Workshop on "Fostering a community of practice in Africa to promote peace through education," 4-6 Dec
INEE-GIZ Pan-African Knowledge Hub

The Inter-Country Quality Node (ICQN) on Peace Education will hold a workshop on "Fostering a community of practice in Africa to promote peace through education" from 4–6 December 2012 in Naivasha, Kenya. Participants will include ICQN focal points from up to 15 African countries, and in particular, the Ministers of Education, and international experts. The overall purpose of the workshop is to reinvigorate the ICQN as a mechanism for knowledge exchange and collaboration among the member countries.
The ICQN on Peace Education was established in 2009 as a mechanism to bring together countries facing similar challenges with strategic partners to promote dialogue and collective learning and to create space for collaborative action on education for peace. The ICQN is led by the Ministry of Education of Kenya, and the workshop is being organized in partnership with ADEA, the German BACKUP Initiative – Education in Africa, the INEE-GIZ Pan-African Knowledge Hub and UNESCO.
Learn more about how to get involved on the INEE website.

[NOTE that this webpage will go live with INEE's new website on Wednesday, 05 December 2012.]
From risk to resilience - promoting education resilience in Central America
World Bank

In late October the World Bank held the last in a series of Education Resilience events in Central America.  While resilience has been studied for over 40 years across various fields, its application to the international development and education in emergencies field has not been fully explored. The CREA conference (“believe” in Spanish) combined training on education resilience research methodology with presentations of preliminary research findings from Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua and Colombia.

Qualitative and mixed methods research studies were carried out by local research teams who have been provided with training and ongoing capacity building support over the last year. They identified resilience mechanisms and strategies across a wide range of contexts including pervasive gang violence, support for children living on the street, municipal strategies within a context of conflict and post conflict transition and the contribution of higher education institutions to promoting resilience. Subsequent discussions considered the further relevance of these resilience research findings to public policy.

Photo: A panel of local and international resilience researchers discuss their findings at the CREA conference (©World Bank)
These contributions form part of the Education Resilience Approaches (ERA) program. It seeks to address the impact of conflict and violence on education systems through the systematic application of the concepts and theories of resilience. Additional studies, prototyping and piloting of research training and assessment tools have taken place in South Sudan, the Palestinian territories and Rwanda.

For more information on the ERA program please contact Joel Reyes:

The World Bank is a member of the INEE Steering Group.
  Work Bench  
Calls for contributions
Research on education and peacebuilding survey

UNICEF is carrying out consultations to assist in defining its research strategy for the new Peacebuilding, Education and Advocacy in Conflict Affected Contexts Programme (2012-2015). The programme is a major new initiative in promoting the role of education in post conflict reconstruction and peacebuilding in conflict affected contexts and has a strong research component.

Your participation in this is greatly appreciated. If you feel you cannot answer certain questions, feel free to leave them blank and answer those you feel more able to engage with. It should not take you more than 20 minutes to complete.

Please complete the online survey by December 17th, 2012.

If you have any questions or queries, please email:
Forced Migration Review: Issue on Fragile States
University of Oxford, Refugee Studies Centre

Deadline for submission of articles: 7 January 2013
The combination of conflict and state fragility has been a major driver of forced displacement in many parts of the world. The international regime gives the state primary responsibility for the well-being and rights of its citizens and others present within its borders. Yet when the state itself is caught up in internal conflict, or lacking in authority, stability, capacity and governance systems or legitimacy, or any combination of these, the welfare and rights of displaced people can be severely compromised. Little of what is written about 'fragile states', however, deals explicitly with forced migration. The FMR editors are looking for practice-oriented submissions, reflecting a diverse range of opinions but focusing on situations of forced displacement, which address questions such as the following:
  • To what extent does forced migration contribute to state fragility, within particular states, or across regions?
  • What is it about state fragility that is most likely to result in forced displacement?
  • What special challenges does forced migration pose for processes of ‘state building’ and post-conflict reconstruction?
To read the full call for contributions, click here.
Publications and Reports
Social Protection and Basic Services in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations
Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium

In an effort to generate better understanding and to identify useful lessons and findings for researchers and decision makers working on and in fragile and conflicted-affected situations, this review synthesises and assesses the available evidence on social protection and basic services (health, education and water) in fragile and conflict-affected situations.

Section 4, which presents the data and evidence on social protection and basic services (health, education, water), includes both an overview of key data relating to expenditure and coverage, as well as a discussion on delivery, with a particular focus on actors, modalities and mechanisms. While there is no clear consensus within the literature as to whether conflict increases or decreases the level of private sector provision of basic services, the section shows that it is clear that in both the health and the education sectors, non-state providers, particularly NGOs, the private sector and faithbased organisations, are often vital sources of resilience. Yet, while there are examples where agencies have been able to build effectively on these informal resilience mechanisms, particularly in the education sector, high levels of informal or non-state provision are considered by many to be problematic for sector coordination and the development of a coherent national policy vision.

Click here to access this publication.
The role of education in peacebuilding: An analysis of five change theories in Sierra Leone
Christine Smith Ellison

This paper raises a number of critical questions regarding the contribution of education to peacebuilding. Despite recent calls for greater collaboration between the two fields, there is still a lack of clarity regarding the change theories through which education may contribute to peacebuilding processes. This paper outlines developments over the past decade in the field of education and conflict, before identifying five rationales for the ways in which education contributes to peacebuilding. The second half of the paper examines the translation of these rationales into practice. Sierra Leone is often regarded as a success story of UN peacebuilding and, 10 years post-agreement, offers the opportunity to examine a broad range of programming.

Using data gathered during a two-week field study (17–28 January, 2011), the paper reflects on five education programmes that operated in Sierra Leone in the post-conflict period. Semi-structured interviews were held with project personnel and beneficiaries, educational officials, students and graduates, community leaders and UN personnel to assess views on the contribution of education to peacebuilding, the rationales informing projects and challenges to implementation. A number of critical questions are raised regarding the lessons learned by the international community, its tendency to pursue its own agendas and its commitment to conflict transformation through peacebuilding.

Forthcoming in Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education. First published online 30 October 2012.
Click here to order the article.
Evaluating peacebuilding activities in settings of conflict and fragility: Improving learning for results

Recognising a need for better, tailored approaches to learning and accountability in conflict settings, the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) launched an initiative to develop guidance on evaluating conflict prevention and peacebuilding activities.  The objective of this process has been to help improve evaluation practice and thereby support the broader community of experts and implementing organisations to enhance the quality of conflict prevention and peacebuilding interventions. It also seeks to guide policy makers, field and desk officers, and country partners towards a better understanding of the role and utility of evaluations.

The guidance  presented in this book provides background on key policy issues affecting donor engagement in settings of conflict and fragility and introduces some of the challenges to evaluation particular to these settings. It then provides step-by-step guidance on the core steps in planning, carrying out and learning from evaluation, as well as some basic principles on programme design and management. The guidance urges donors and partners to:
  • Base their work on a clear understanding of the conflict context, its key drivers, political economy, dynamics and actors, and a deep analysis of how their own activities will interact with and impact (directly or indirectly) on peacebuilding and statebuilding processes.
  • Use critical analysis to generate more credible information about the effectiveness and results of their peacebuilding strategies and programmes.
  • Question the underlying assumptions of their work and strengthen the evidence-base for peacebuilding support by testing their theories about how change happens.
  • Be responsive to and sensitive of the conflict when designing, implementing or evaluating programmes – to avoid making things worse.
Click here to access this guidance.
Education and Internally Displaced Persons
Christine Smith Ellison, Alan Smith (Editors)

What are the barriers to education for internally displaced persons? How can these be overcome? Drawing on research from a diverse set of countries, including the the USA, Somalia, Colombia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Bosnia and Herzegovina, the contributors consider the relationship between education and internally displaced persons. These case studies raise fundamental questions regarding the barriers to education and some unexpected benefits for displaced children.

The dynamics that impact access and quality of education for internally displaced people are examined and the role education can play in rebuilding societies and strengthening peace building processes is considered. Each case study brings to light a different aspect of displacement including various causes: current legal protection and its implications for government action and practical responses; challenges arising from country contexts related to the scale and duration of displacement; and the role of education in meeting the needs of returnees.

Click here to order this recently-published book.
Exposure to violence and educational outcomes: evidence from Cape Town, South Africa
Duncan Pieterse, Centre for Social Science Research, University of Cape Town

This working paper explores the relationship between exposure to violence during childhood perpetrated by adults inside the home and educational outcomes in the context of higher than average rates of violence in Cape Town, South Africa and the disproportionate exposure to violence of young South Africans (black and coloured youth in particular). Official police murder statistics at the neighbourhood level are matched to the Cape Area Panel Study to provide a unique descriptive analysis of violence in Cape Town and the extent of selection bias using matching techniques is determined.

Using three measures of educational outcomes (numeracy and literacy test scores, dropout and high school exam results), the paper: (i) estimates kernel density functions of continuous educational outcomes measures by race and exposure to violence during childhood; (ii) removes constant differences in unobserved family and neighbourhood background that may bias the results by using sibling and neighbourhood fixed effect models; (iii) checks the robustness of the sibling fixed effect regressions by including birth order effects.

The analysis finds that, in the neighbourhood fixed effect regressions, the measures of exposure to violence are significant and have a large negative effect on educational outcomes (with the exception of literacy scores). In the sibling fixed effect regressions, the effect remains for two of the four measures of exposure to violence during childhood. The measure of exposure to emotional violence during childhood is least affected by selection bias and the only measure robust to the inclusion of birth order effects.

Click here to access this working paper.
  Coming Up  

International Conference on Language Rights, Inclusion and the Prevention of Ethnic Conflict
Mother Tongue Based–MultiLingual Education Network

When: 13-17 December 2012
Where: Chiang Mai, Thailand

While language rights are topical in many parts of the world, they are still widely misunderstood despite being a significant factor in many conflicts in Asia (India, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Thailand, China, Xinjiang, Tibet, Hong Kong), Europe (Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Spain, Kosovo, Macedonia, Ukraine), Africa (Cameroon, South Africa, Ethiopia, Morocco, Libya, Algeria) and the Americas (Canada, Mexico, Peru, Paraguay).

At this International Conference, presenters and participants from all parts of the world will come together to discuss language rights and ethnic conflicts, as well as issues of language contact and planning.

For more information, to view the programme (in English and French), and to register, click here.
E-Learning course on Violence, conflict and fragility
World Bank

When: 14-25 January 2013
Cost: US$ 250

Deadline: 7 January 2013

The e-learning course on Violence, Conflict and Fragility builds on themes and messages developed in the 2011 World Development Report on Conflict, Security and Development. It will enable course participants to critically assess the nature and challenges of modern violence and conflict, and offer perspectives on effective transitions out of fragility. The course consists of four modules, including one introductory overview module, covering the following topics:
  1. The nature of modern violence and fragility: on the development impacts of violence and the multiple causes, or stresses, that underpin it
  2. Developing Resilience: on restoring confidence in political transitions and transforming effective and legitimate institutions as a means to prevent and manage violence
  3. International Support: on the role of the international community in supporting national violence prevention and locally-driven reform efforts
For more information and to apply, click here.
The Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE) is an open global network of over 7,500 practitioners, students, teachers, staff from UN agencies, non-governmental organizations, donos, governments and universities who work together to ensure all persons the right to quality, relevant and safe educational opportunities. INEE is a vibrant and dynamic inter-agency forum that fosters collaborative resource development and knowledge sharing and informs policy through consensus-driven advocacy. INEE also has a website with a wide range of resources for those working on education in emergencies, chronic crises and early recovery
Copyright © 2012 Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE), All rights reserved. If you re-print, copy, archive or re-post this message please retain this disclaimer. Quotations or extracts should include attribution to the original sources.

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