July 2012
Knowledge Capsule
One child in 3 in conflict-affected and fragile states does not go to school, compared to 1 in 11 in low-income countries.
~Save the Children (2010)
Sound Bite
"During conflict, education can offer knowledge and skills that provide protection, while in the longer term, it can help develop values and attitudes that prevent conflict and build peace."

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Dear INEE Members,
Welcome to the INEE Education and Fragility Monthly Newsletter for the month of July 2012. This newsletter contains information and resources of interest and relevance to those working in education in fragile and conflict affected contexts. It includes resources related to education, peace building and fragility; as well as information about programs that INEE member organizations are developing, and updates of the INEE Working Group (WG) on Education and Fragility. 
We encourage you to share with us any helpful resources and information that you encounter for inclusion in future updates and on the INEE website. Please forward your suggestions with related attachments and web links to
We hope that you will find this newsletter interesting and useful.
Maria Lucia Uribe Torres, Deputy Coordinator for Education and Fragility,
on behalf of the INEE Working Group on Education and Fragility
  In this Newsletter  
Working Group Corner
  Working Group Updates
      INEE Education and Fragility Webpages
  In the Spotlight
      Hearing the voices of “ordinary” youth in conflict-affected states

Peacebuilding, Education and Advocacy Programme

Work Bench
      The role of basic education in post-conflict recovery
      Education for conflict prevention and peacebuilding
      Estimating the causal effects of conflict on education in Côte d’Ivoire
      Organized crime, conflict, and fragility: A new approach
  Opinion Pieces
      Language policy and development: Lost in translation

Coming Up
      Educational planning for conflict and disaster risk reduction
      The West Africa Peacebuilding Institute
Seminar on conflict and cooperation
  Working Group Corner  
Working Group Updates

INEE Education and Fragility Webpages
In conjunction with the larger INEE website redesign project, we are in the process of updating the INEE education and fragility webpages to make them more user-friendly, provide relevant and easy to access resources, and create spaces for dialogue and information sharing among INEE members.  
We would like to hear from you about:
     1.  What would you like to find on the INEE Education and Fragility pages?
     2.  What specific topics you would like to get more information about?
     3.  Your recommendations to increase dialogue and interaction with INEE members
Please send us 
your ideas, suggestions or any other comments to educationfragility@ineesite.orgWe are happy to hear from you!

For more information on the Working Group on Education and Fragility 2011-2013, click here.
In the Spotlight

Blog post: Hearing the voices of “ordinary” youth in fragile and conflict-affected states
Lili Cole interviews Marc Sommers, an expert in youth, education and conflict, about his latest book, Stuck: Rwandan Youth and the Struggle for Adulthood. Sommers speaks about the role of education for Rwandan youth and what his book reveals about youth in fragile, conflict-affected states. His book was initially funded by the World Bank, partially written when he was a Jennings Randolph Senior Fellow at US Institute for Peace (USIP), and published jointly by the University of Georgia Press and the USIP Press in 2012. Sommers’ findings about ordinary Rwandan youth shocked many in the development world.

Lili Cole is a Senior Program Officer in the Jennings Randolph Fellowship Program at the Washington, D.C.-based U.S. Institute of Peace (USIP) and a member of the INEE Working Group on Education and Fragility.

To see full article and leave your comments, click here.


Peacebuilding, Education and Advocacy Programme

The new four-year Peacebuilding, Education and Advocacy Programme – initiated in 2012 with a grant of US$150 million by the Government of the Netherlands and designed as a partnership among between UNICEF, the Government of the Netherlands, the national governments of participating countries and other key partners – is an innovative, cross-sectoral programme focusing on education and peacebuilding. It aims to strengthen resilience, social cohesion and human security in conflict-affected contexts, including countries at risk of – or experiencing and recovering from – conflict.
Towards this end, the programme will strengthen policies and practices in education for peacebuilding and focus on five key outcomes: 
  1. increase inclusion of education into peacebuilding including taking an multisectoral approach and conflict reduction policies, analyses and implementation;
  2. increase institutional capacities to supply conflict-sensitive education;
  3. increase the capacities of children, parents, teachers and other duty bearers to prevent, reduce and cope with conflict and promote peace;
  4. increase access to quality and relevant conflict-sensitive education that contributes to peace;
  5. contribute to the generation and use of evidence and knowledge in policies and programming related to education, conflict and peacebuilding.
As a first and crucial programme step, UNICEF’s approach to education and peacebuilding in conflict-affected contexts will be informed by a comprehensive conflict analysis of each education system, located within broader cross-sectoral and peacebuilding processes. The findings of conflict analyses will inform programming at all levels: school, community, education sector and national.
Click here to access some of the resources used in the programme.   
  Work Bench  
The role of basic education in post-conflict recovery
(Sultan Barakat, David Connolly, Frank Hardman & Vanita Sundaram)

Drawing on the 2010 independent study of UNICEF's Education in Emergencies and Post-Conflict Transition Programme, this paper explores the transformative role education can play in post-conflict recovery. It argues that while basic education assistance can have a catalytic role in helping states during the early stages of a transition out of violent conflict, there is the need for a better understanding of its role in building peace at the national, sub-national and community levels. The paper also argues for the development of a solid evidence base to inform policy and practice at all national, regional and community levels so as to demonstrate conclusively the important role played by education during and in the aftermath of conflict.
Forthcoming in Comparative Education. First published online 26 June 2012.
Click here to read the full abstract and order the article.

Education for conflict prevention and peacebuilding
(UNESCO  IIEP, International Institute for Educational Planning)

This IIEP Occasional Paper describes a range of conflict prevention initiatives and examines the role of policy-makers, youth, women, and the media in maintaining and restoring peace as part of a holistic vision of education. The paper argues that educational planning must go beyond traditional mechanisms and take into consideration the unpredictable nature of our times, be flexible and rapid in implementation and responsive to local needs.

Training and research in sustainable development; and skills for peaceful relations, good governance, the prevention of conflict and peacebuilding are among the priorities elaborated in the paper. In addition, specific recommendations are highlighted such as: capacity development for conflict prevention within the education sector and other ministries, analysing the root causes of conflict and the role that education can play in mitigating tensions.
Click here to access the paper.

Estimating the causal effects of conflict on education in Côte d’Ivoire
(World Bank: Andrew Dabalen and Saumik Paul)

This Policy Research Working Paper estimates the causal effects of civil war on years of education in the context of a school-going age cohort that is exposed to armed conflict in Côte d'Ivoire. Using year and department of birth to identify an individual's exposure to war, the difference-in-difference outcomes indicate that the average years of education for a school-going age cohort is .94 years fewer compared with an older cohort in war-affected regions. To minimize the potential bias in the estimated outcome, the authors use a set of victimization indicators to identify the true effect of war. The propensity score matching estimates do not alter the main findings. In addition, the outcomes of double-robust models minimize the specification errors in the model. Moreover, the paper finds the outcomes are robust across alternative matching methods, estimation by using subsamples, and other education outcome variables. Overall, the findings across different models suggest a drop in average years of education by a range of .2 to .9 fewer years.
This Working Paper is available here.

Organized crime, conflict, and fragility: A new approach
(Rachel Locke, International Peace Institute)

The rise of transnational organized crime in conflict-affected and fragile states poses a serious threat to peace and development. And the pressure transnational organized crime is placing on the international system is stretching the collective ability to respond.

While the correlation between conflict and state fragility is well established, this policy paper explains the links between transnational organized crime, conflict, and fragility, showing that the three fit together in an uneasy and potentially deadly triumvirate.
The policy paper finds that organized crime does not merely undermine the strength of the state in conflict-affected and fragile contexts, it further impacts the critical and often contested relationship between the state and society. Given this complex context, the author makes a number of recommendations for governments and international actors.
Click here to read the policy paper.
Opinion Pieces
Language policy and development: Lost in translation
(Seth Kaplan, Fragile States Resource Center)
Language is one of the most neglected areas in the development field. It barely registers on any agenda to help poor countries despite its importance to a number of crucial areas and it being a barrier to progress in many fragile states. Why is this? In the least developed countries, language policy should have two basic aims:
  1) Maximize the ability of a population to acquire knowledge so as to increase education levels and productivity;
  2) Maximize the cohesion of a population so as to increase its ability to cooperate to promote national development.
These are among the most important issues facing fragile states, which are typically plagued by social divisions and low education levels. Yet, many countries have policies that work against both these aims.
Click here to read the full opinion piece.
  Coming Up  
Distance Course: Educational planning for conflict and disaster risk reduction
(UNESCO IIEP, International Institute for Educational Planning)
When: 17 September to 9 November 2012
Price: US$500
Registration deadline: 3 August 2012
This distance course takes participants through a systematic examination of the ways in which education authorities can integrate conflict and disaster risk reduction into sector planning processes.
The course examines core educational planning steps such as:
  • establishing a diagnosis of the risks affecting the education sector;
  • integrating C/DRR measures into regular education policy, planning and programming interventions;
  • developing a relevant C/DRR strategy to respond to risks identified;
  • monitoring and evaluating progress on implementation of risk reduction strategies; and
  • mobilizing human and financial resources to implement C/DRR measures.
For more information and to download the application form, click here.

Intensive Training Programme: The West Africa Peacebuilding Institute
(West Africa Network for Peacebuilding, and Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre)
When: 3 to 21 September 2012
Where: Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre, Accra, Ghana
Registration deadline: 10 August 2012
WAPI is a three-week intensive training program that aims to strengthen the capacity of civil society-based peacebuilding practitioners and institutions in order to promote the development of indigenous responses to conflict. Six courses will be offered during the three-week period, each week having two 5-day intensive courses running concurrently. The courses are highly interactive and participatory, blending theory and practice in the field of peacebuilding.
Admission to WAPI is open to practitioners, students, policy makers and civil society members, the business community and individuals interested in peacebuilding, processes of dialogue and mediation, conflict and development, cross-border crimes, electoral disputes management, youth and peace education, conflict prevention, gender, and natural resource conflict management.
For more information, click here.
Seminar on conflict and cooperation: Addressing sensitive and controversial issues in History Education
(EUROCLIO, European Association of History Educators)
When: 19 to 23 September 2012
Where: Ballycastle, Northern Ireland
Course fee (excl. accommodation and meals): €300
This seminar serves as a space for professionals from different backgrounds to exchange ideas and experiences related to the teaching of history, heritage and citizenship. Participants will be introduced to the local history and the complexities of teaching history in Northern-Ireland, and will think collaboratively about 'how to address sensitive and controversial issues in (contemporary) history' and 'how to teach about victims and perpetrators in a balanced way.' They will also have a chance to review educational resources related to historical case studies with a special focus on conflict, and will be informed about, and involved in the testing, developments and use of educational material from the Historiana website (
For more information and to register, click here.
The Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE) is an open global network of over 7,500 practitioners, students, teachers, staff from UN agencies, non-governmental organizations, donos, governments and universities who work together to ensure all persons the right to quality, relevant and safe educational opportunities. INEE is a vibrant and dynamic inter-agency forum that fosters collaborative resource development and knowledge sharing and informs policy through consensus-driven advocacy. INEE also has a website with a wide range of resources for those working on education in emergencies, chronic crises and early recovery -

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