A new study shows that virtually all lead-based automotive batteries that have come to the end of their useful life are collected and recycled in the EU in a closed loop system.
of used automotive batteries available for collection are recycled, making them one of the most recycled consumer products in the EU, according to consultancy IHS. The study was commissioned by EUROBAT, representing Europe’s automotive battery industry, the European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA), the automobile manufacturers’ associations of Japan (JAMA) and South Korea (KAMA), and the International Lead Association (ILA).
The study explains how virtually all the component parts of a lead-based battery are recovered and reused at the end of life in a straightforward production process, with considerable benefits to the consumer and society.
The study The Availability of Automotive Lead-Based Batteries for Recycling in the EU,
is part of a series of studies that have been submitted by the project group to the recent consultation launched by the EU Commission on whether to continue the current exemption for lead-based batteries within the EU End of Life Vehicle (ELV) Directive’s wider ban on lead in light-duty vehicles.
ILA Managing Director, Dr Andy Bush, said: “These figures show that the closed loop system for lead-based batteries is working extremely well in Europe and making a significant contribution to the circular economy.’’
The high recycling rate achieved means that the existing market for automotive lead-based batteries in the EU can be predominantly met with recycled lead in a closed loop system with low demand for primary lead reserves from mining.
The study explains that even without the need to recycle for resource conservation and environmental protection reasons, there is a significant economic incentive that acts as a driver to collect and recycle used automotive lead-based batteries. Recycling lead is relatively simple and cost effective and, in most of the current applications where lead is used, it is possible to recover it for further use over and over again - in lead batteries, or other products - without any loss in quality.
Although the report shows that 99% of used automotive lead batteries available for collection are recycled it highlights that the remaining 1% represents the statistical error of the approach and/or movement of stored batteries and batteries with longer lifetimes than estimated in this study rather than any batteries being landfilled or incinerated.
In related projects, this joint industry group has also evaluated battery technologies used for automotive applications
, the resource availability of materials used in batteries
and conducted a life cycle assessment (LCA) of batteries
used in passenger cars.
Notes to editors
How are lead batteries recycled?
In the EU, used automotive lead-based batteries are typically returned to the point of sale, for example, vehicle workshops, vehicle dealerships, accessory shops, and DIY stores; or they are returned to recycling businesses or metal dealerships. In all cases they are then sent on to collection points.
The batteries are picked up at collection points by specialised companies who transport and deliver the batteries to secondary smelting plants operating under strict environmental regulations. Once the lead-based batteries arrive at a smelter for recycling, in general the battery is broken down into component parts, the majority of which can be recycled.
The lead-acid battery is an excellent example of a product allowing an almost complete end-of-life recycling, with more than 93% of a lead-based battery available for recycling. The only component of the battery that cannot be recycled is the separators (these represent just 2% to 7% of the battery).
The components that can be recycled and re-used are as follows:
• The lead components (approximately 60% of the weight) are smelted and refined to be used to make new batteries.
• The battery casing, which is made of plastic (approximately 7% of the weight), is usually separated before the lead is recycled, depending on the method used, and is then reprocessed and re-used for batteries or for other products in the automobile industry, for example in bumpers, wheel arches and other parts.
• The spent electrolyte (diluted sulphuric acid, approximately 30% of the weight) is treated in a variety of ways. In some processes the spent electrolyte is separated and filtered to make it suitable for regenerating fresh acid for a variety of applications. Other processes convert the spent electrolyte into calcium sulphate (gypsum) or sodium sulphate (soda), which can be used for various applications such as building products or detergents. Some processes neutralise the spent electrolyte and then dispose of it.
Furthermore, as all lead-based batteries have the same basic chemistry, this means that all types of lead battery can be processed easily by lead smelters. This is not the case with other automotive battery technologies which are used for hybrid and electric vehicles.
About the project partners
International Lead Association (ILA)
ILA is a membership body that supports companies involved in the mining, smelting, refining and recycling of lead. The ILA represents the producers of about 3 million tons of lead. ILA’s work has a broad focus, covering all aspects of the industry’s safe production, use and recycling of lead.
EUROBAT, the Association of European Automotive and Industrial Battery Manufacturers
, acts as a unified voice in promoting the interests of the European automotive, industrial and special battery industries of all battery chemistries. With over 40 members comprising over 90% of the automotive and industrial battery industry in Europe, EUROBAT also works with stakeholders to help develop a vision of future battery solutions to issues of public interest in areas like e-Mobility and renewable energy storage.
The European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA)
, founded in 1991, represents the interests of the fifteen European car, truck and bus manufacturers at EU level. Its membership consists of the major international automobile companies, working together in an active association to ensure effective communication and negotiation with legislative, commercial, technical, consumer, environmental and other interests.
Japanese Automobile Manufacturers Association (JAMA)
is a non-profit industry association which comprises Japan’s fourteen manufacturers of passenger cars, trucks, buses and motorcycles. JAMA works to support the sound development of Japan’s automobile industry and to contribute to social and economic welfare.
Korean Automobile Manufacturers Asssociation (KAMA)
is a non-profit organization, representing the interests of automakers in Korea. KAMA is also dedicated to the sound growth of the automobile industry and the development of the national economy.