The SEEV4-City State-of-the-Art report
Electro-mobility has an imperative role to play in reducing emissions and thus mitigate the effects of climate change & help reduce urban air pollution. In parallel, the regulatory framework continues to set new and challenging targets for greenhouse gas emissions and also urban air pollution.
SEEV4-City aims to develop the concept of ‘Vehicle4EnergySevices’ (V4ES) into sustainable business models to integrate Electric Vehicles and renewable energy in a Sustainable Urban Mobility and Energy Plan (SUMEP).
The full State-of-the-Art report provides a holistic in-depth review of the related areas regarding the integration of plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) into electricity network, smart charging, V4ES, business models and policies.
To get a quick overview on technology development, the role of EVs in reduction, the impact of EVs on the energy system, potential business models, services and policies to promote the use of EVs to provide energy services, SEEV4-City provides you with the Summary of the State-of-the-Art report
Key points from the summary report:
The North Sea Region (NSR) is at the forefront in the adoption of both EVs and renewable energy sources. The continuous increase in the production of renewable energy and the growing energy demand for EV charging create challenges but also opportunities when combined. These challenges could be effectively resolved via smart charging, vehicle to grid and the various ‘ancillary’ services provided by EVs.
Key points from the state-of-the-art report:
- The implementation ‘Vehicle4EnergyServices’ can:
- Provide environmental improvements: mitigate emissions, increase clean kilometres driven, reduce air pollution and noise level.
- Increase energy autonomy by demand-supply matching and consequently reduce otherwise required grid and transport investments (i.e. avoid infrastructure reinforcement with consequent cost savings).
- Achieve efficiency improvements with a lower global carbon footprint for both transport and electricity supply, particularly when EVs are charged from renewable energy sources.
- The EU or Interreg countries are not at a similar stage of development regarding EV uptake, charging infrastructure, standardization, policy, readiness for V4ES, etc.
- There are a limited number of commercial trails of smart charging and V4ES worldwide, and these do not consider all aspects and stakeholders involved.
- The main barrier for using electric vehicles to provide energy services (V4ES) is the lack of reliable quantitative analysis based on real data which adequately considers all factors (e.g. battery degradation) to determine the commercial viability for EV owners to provide the service.
- There is a need for win-win business models as business planning for smart charging and V4ES is in its infancy and there lack of confidence in existing models, standards, policy, market, etc.
- Interoperability is a major issue in terms of infrastructure implementation and communication.
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Both the summary as well as the full version of the State-of-the-Art report are draft reports and they will yet change over the lifetime of the SEEV4-City project – with Final versions only at the close-down of the SEEV4-City project. These reports have been prepared by different partners (mainly Northumbria University, Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences, and Cenex) under the auspices of the ongoing SEEV4-City project. Whilst the team has taken all reasonable care in preparing this document, no representation or warranty either expressed or implied is made as to the accuracy or completeness of the information that it contains. The SEEV4-City consortium will not accept any responsibility for any use of the information presented in the document or (to the extent permitted by law) for any damages or losses incurred.
This work is fully supported by EU – Interreg North Sea Region programme – Smart, clean Energy and Electric Vehicles for the City (SEEV4-City) project. The authors would like to express their gratitude to the individuals with expertise in the related areas who provided critical reviews and valuable suggestions to improve both the overall quality and readability of this report. Their names are listed here with alphabetical order, Peter Bach Andersen (DTU), Matteo Conti (Northumbria University), Marcus Fendt (The Mobility House), Collin Herron (Zero Carbon Futures), Peter Lindgren (City of Gothenburg), Manel Sanmarti (IREC).