V2G-Repository Presented: 18 European Vehicle2Grid-projects
The Netherlands, the U.K. and Denmark are leading in ongoing and planned V2G-projects
A quick analysis of this listing of current V2G projects shows that:
In the past few years, a growing number of Vehicle2Grid (V2G) pilots have been initiated, but information about these projects is largely scattered and hard to compile. This document
provides an overview of ongoing/proposed Vehicle2Grid (V2G) pilot projects in Europe
. It contains basic descriptions as well as the most notable characteristics of the projects such as location, partners, scale & type, the running time of the project and supply chain participation. Thus, the V2G-Repository aims to provide an up-to-date overview of ongoing and planned V2G pilots and demonstrations to share amongst interested practitioners, institutes and policymakers.
The V2G repository is based on secondary research (desk research) carried out by the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences (AUAS) and was verified by contacting the coordinators/project leaders of the listed projects.
This work was undertaken by researchers of the Urban Technology research group at AUAS as part of the currently ongoing Interreg NSR
* funded SEEV4-City
project, in which 5 - 6 V2G Operational Pilots will be demonstrated at different locations in Europe until 2020.
- These projects include a variety of stakeholders - from universities and research institutes, to EV manufacturers, grid operators and municipalities. Two major EV manufacturers involved on these V2G projects are Nissan and Mitsubishi Motors.
- Each project has its own characteristics (Unique Selling Point). A common feature of a majority of the projects is combining Solar PV with bi-directional chargers. Other features include corporate car sharing, energy buffer solutions, V2G for Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR) services.
- The mentioned V2G pilots are being demonstrated in ten European countries. The Netherlands (7 projects), the U.K. (6 projects) and Denmark (2 projects) are the frontrunners, followed by Norway, Belgium, Finland, Spain, Italy, France, Greece.
- NUVVE is the leading aggregator associated with 3 of the listed V2G projects. Other aggregators found include NewMotion, Jedlix, Direct Energie, Virta, Enervalis and the Italian Institute of Technology (IIT).
- The scale of these projects varies from single households to large public charging stations. The number of V2G units considered among these projects ranges from 1 to 50, while the number of EVs ranges from 1 to 100.
- On an average, the running time of these projects is between 2 to 3 years.
- The main V2G hardware providers (bidirectional charger) are Enel, MagnumCap and Endesa. Others include General Electric, Last Mile Solutions, Helen and PRE. Currently, not many other hardware providers provide operational V2G chargers.
- The Charging Point Operators (CPO) involved on these projects include companies like NewMotion, Engie, LomboXnet, NuVve, HEDNO, and Virta.
- CHAdeMO is the most commonly-used charging standard on these V2G projects, which could be attributed to the fact that it was one of the first standards to support V2G. CCS/Combo was used as the charging standard protocol on two of the listed projects.
- The V2G projects have different operational environments, such as Vehicle-to-Home (V2H), Vehicle-to-Street (V2S), Vehicle-to-Neighbourhood (V2N) and Vehicle-to-Business (V2B). Out of these, V2B is the most common operational environment adopted on these projects.
Invitation to provide inputs and additions:
In case there is any relevant European V2G project missing from this overview, we welcome you to kindly contact (email@example.com
) to add it to the list. Thank you for your contribution in advance.
The information contained in this V2G overview is for general information only and is collected from the respective project websites through secondary research. Where available, external websites have been referred to, in order to obtain related information. Given that project websites differ in accuracy and updating frequency, and may not contain information regarding the actual status, the overview cannot guarantee the accuracy or completeness of the descriptions. Furthermore, the list is not exhaustive. Any suggestions for additions, deletions, or modifications to the contents of the overview are welcome and will be handled by the Amsterdam University of Applied Sciences (contact: Ramesh Prateek, firstname.lastname@example.org
*This research was supported as part of SEEV4-City, an Interreg project supported by the North Sea Programme of the European Regional Development Fund of the European Union.