Copy
View this email in your browser

“In nature, fire is a great regenerative force, one might even say a rejuvenative force...”
— E.V. Komarek, Sr.

June-July 2019  Vol. 9 (3)
Research Brief
Is Prescribed Fire Good for Sequestering Carbon?

SFE Updates
Duff Workshop Held in Southern Pines NC
Upcoming SFE Workshops
SFE Assists with Advanced Growing Season Workshop in Ellerbe, NC
Upcoming Webinars
Recent Webinar Recordings

What's New in Fire Science?
NIST Records 360 Video Inside Prescribed Fire
Superfog Produced in Lab for First Time
USC Fire Manager Survey
To Masticate or Not?
JFSP Study Examines Firefighter Entrapments
National Significant Wildland Fire Potential Outlook
Fire-Focused Journals Release New Issues
New NWCG Resources Available
American Geophysical Union Special Session on Fire
Proceedings of the 5th Int. Symp. on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy
Fire Science News Roundup 

New Technology and Tools
Researchers Developing App for Safety Zones, Escape Routes
WindNinja 3.5.3 
HYSPLIT Self-Paced Tutorial
SmartMap Training

Other News
New and Improved Research Poster Template
Engaging Landowners in Conservation
Two More Chains Releases New Issue
America's Longleaf Restoration Initiative 2018  Report

Funding Opportunities
U.S. Endowment for Forestry and Communities Issues RFP For Southeast FireMap Scoping Phase

New Fire Science Publications for the South

Upcoming Events

Research Brief

Is Prescribed Fire Good for Sequestering Carbon?
New research by Flanagan et al. (2019) demonstrates that frequent prescribed fire in a Southeastern longleaf pine ecosystem can maintain ecosystem carbon stocks through time, sustain ecosystem composition, and minimize carbon emissions in comparison to other scenarios. Using the LANDIS-II landscape disturbance and succession model, the authors analyzed the ecosystem carbon dynamics and vegetative compositional trajectories of five management scenarios: (a) frequent prescribed fire conducted every two years, (b) wildfires every 20 years, (c) wildfires every 50 years, (d) wildfires every 100 years, and (e) complete fire exclusion. The modeled scenarios were based on inputs from the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center in southwest Georgia, U.S.A. and run for 300 years at 1-ha spatial resolution. The results showed the wildfires would need to be suppressed on the site for more than 100 years for total aboveground biomass (AGB) to surpass the frequent prescribed fire model total AGB (~190 MgC/ha vs. ~195 MgC/ha). At the end of the 300-year model run, the total fire exclusion scenario was the only option that resulted in the site becoming a carbon sink.  This scenario resulted in a nearly complete change in forest composition and structure, as the fire-maintained longleaf pine ecosystem transitioned to an oak-dominated ecosystem. Frequent prescribed fire was the only scenario that stabilized both AGB and longleaf pine ecosystem composition. 


“…one would need to suppress fire on the order of centuries to see a forest emit less carbon than it would under regular prescribed fire, which in this case was applied 50 times per century.”
 

The episodic wildfire scenarios resulted in drastic fluctuations in AGB with an eventual transition of the ecosystem away from longleaf towards mixed-pine and hardwoods systems. The study found that over the modeled 300-year period, carbon emissions from the prescribed fire scenario (~100 MgC/ha) were less than the carbon emissions from the 20- and 50-year wildfire scenarios (~200 MgC/ha). To result in carbon emissions lower than the prescribed fire scenario, the authors reported that all fires would need to be suppressed on the order of centuries. The researchers suggested that due to the frequent occurrence of wildfires in the Southeast and the potential for more extreme fire weather due to climate change, total fire suppression is not likely to be a sustainable strategy for managing ecosystems for carbon. Furthermore, the authors note that such strategies would be detrimental to maintaining the suite of species and services associated with the longleaf pine ecosystem.
 
Citation: Flanagan, S. A., Bhotika, S., Hawley, C., Starr, G., Wiesner, S., Hiers, J. K., O'Brien, J. J., Goodrick, S., Callaham Jr, M. A., Scheller, R. M., Klepzig, K. D., Taylor, R. S., and Loudermilk, E. L.. 2019. Quantifying carbon and species dynamics under different fire regimes in a southeastern U.S. pineland. Ecosphere 10 (6): e02772. 10.1002/ecs2.2772. Open Access. https://esajournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ecs2.2772

SFE Updates

Duff Workshop Held at Weymouth Woods-Sandhills Nature Preserve
SFE held a Duff Fire Science and Management Workshop at Weymouth Woods-Sandhills Nature Preserve in Southern Pines, NC on June 26. Sponsored by the National Wild Turkey Federation, the workshop brought together researchers and practitioners to discuss managing fire in areas with heavy duff loads. Morning presentations covered what the latest research says about duff fires and related tree mortality, while the afternoon field portion addressed how that science is used in on-the-ground management. A pre-workshop field trip to an old-growth longleaf stand owned by the City of Fayetteville allowed for additional discussion.
Upcoming SFE Workshops
  • August 1Sandhills Prescribed Burn Association Duff Fire Management Workshop, Southern Pines, NC: This workshop is for landowner burners, and will cover the basics of duff fire science and practical management solutions.
  • Fall 2019 – Organic and Coastal Soils Workshop, Holly Shelter Game Land, NC: This workshop will address science and management considerations for managing fire in organic soils.
If you are interested in additional information, or in working with SFE to organize a workshop on any topic in your area, contact Laurel Kays at lekays@ncsu.edu or 919-513-2573.
SFE staff and advisory board members assisted the North Carolina Prescribed Fire Council in hosting an Advanced Growing Season Prescribed Fire Workshop on May 29 & 30 at the Millstone 4-H Camp and Sandhills Game Lands in Ellerbe, NC. Burners learned about parameters and techniques specific to applying fire when plants are actively growing in the spring and summer months. In addition to classroom training, a 50 acre live burn was conducted. 
Image Credit: Larry Such, NC Forest Service
Upcoming Webinars

SFE  will host a Webinar with Dr. Mike Chamberlain of University of Georgia on Thursday, August 1, at 1:00 PM ETInfluences of Prescribed Fire on the Ecology of Wild Turkeys

Other upcoming webinars of interest to the fire science community in the South include:
Recent SFE Webinar Recordings
All SFE webinars are recorded and made available on the SFE YouTube channel. Recordings of workshop and conference presentations, interviews with fire professionals, and other videos are also available on the YouTube channel. Listed below are the most recently added webinar recordings. Many other organizations, including other Fire Science Exchange Networks, produce webinars of interest to the fire science community in the South. Recently recorded webinars relevant to the South include:

What's New in Fire Science?

A prototype camera system developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) allowed researchers to capture a 360-degree video from inside a recent prescribed burn in the New Jersey Pine Barrens.
Superfog Produced in Lab for First Time
New research led by the University of California, Riverside, and sponsored by the Joint Fire Sciences Program has produced superfog in a laboratory for the first time. As outlined in an SFE fact sheet, superfog is a combination of smoke and fog that results in very low visibility and has led to accidents and fatalities. A better understanding of how superfog forms may lead to additional safety criteria for planning future prescribed fire.
USC Fire Manager Survey
Researchers with the University of South Carolina are conducting a survey of fire managers working in longleaf pine ecosystems. Survey responses will be used to better understand the combinations of decision-making criteria and constraints to the use of prescribed burning in longleaf pine management and concerns about future pressures on the use of fire across the longleaf range.  Survey responses should be submitted by August 1. The project is supported by the Southeast Climate Adaptation Center, and a report of the compiled data will be publicly available.
To Masticate or Not?
A new report from the USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station summarizes current knowledge on mastication as a forest management tool, including the use of mastication to improve the efficacy of prescribed fire and assist wildfire suppression efforts.
JFSP Study Examines Current Understanding of Causes of Firefighter Entrapments
A JFSP-funded study reviewed current literature and compiled a synthesis of existing data in an attempt to identity the scope of current understanding of the causes of firefighter entrapments. Key findings to date include:
  • Previous investigations of firefighter entrapment incidents have similar summaries and recommendations
  • The entrapment investigation process and existing data reporting/storage systems are flawed
  • There is likely a substantial under-reporting of entrapment incidents
  • The number of entrapment-related fatalities are decreasing but the number of entrapment incidents are not
  • Factual information from previous entrapments can be used to predict/project future entrapment hazard and risk
The study's final report contains additional findings.
National Significant Wildland Fire Potential Outlook
The National Interagency Fire Center released a new National Significant Wildland Fire Potential Outlook report on July 1. Significant wildland fire potential is projected to be above normal in several regions of the country for July-October.
Fire-Focused Journals Release New Issues
The peer-reviewed journals Fire and Fire Ecology have each released new issues. Both are open-access and free to all readers.

New NWCG Resources Available
The National Wildfire Coordinating Group has released new Standards for Fire Weather Stations and a Wildland Urban Interface Wildfire Mitigation Desk Reference Guide. These resources and all other publications are available on the NWCG website.
American Geophysical Union Accepting Abstracts for Fall Meeting 2019
AGU is accepting abstracts for Fall Meeting 2019 through July 31. A session will be held to address "Fire management as climate policy," and those with relevant research are encouraged to submit an abstract specifically for that session.

Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy: Ecosystem Services and Wildfires
The USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Research Station has released a General Technical Report containing the Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Fire Economics, Planning, and Policy. The symposium was held in February to address current issues faced by state and federal agencies with wildland fire responsibility. 
Fire Science News Roundup 

New Technology and Tools

Researchers from Fort Lewis College and the USDA Forest Service are close to finalizing a model that will predict how hiking speed is impacted by firefighter packs, fire-retardant uniforms, and individual fitness levels. Once finished, the "Google Maps-style algorithm" will be added to the Wildfire Safety Evaluator (WiSE) app currently in development by the Forest Service. The first version of WiSE will help firefighters calculate how big their safety zone needs to be, with the mapping component to be added later.
WindNinja 3.5.3 
WindNinja 3.5.3 is now available. Note that older versions of WindNinja do NOT need to be installed before installing the latest version.
HYSPLIT Self-Paced Tutorial
All materials needed for the self-paced HYSPLIT tutorial are available on NOAA's Air Resources Laboratory website. Tutorial materials are available online and as a downloadable zip file, and include all necessary graphics and examples.
SmartMap is a series of hands-on introductory workshops providing training in the use of smart devices and UAVs to collect, draw, and interpret georeferenced data to develop maps for improved forest management including prescribed fire. Provided by Alabama Cooperative Extension, the program offers workshops at various dates and locations around Alabama.

Other News

Mike Morrison, a doctoral student in psychology at Michigan State University created a new template for scientific posters that he and others say is more effective at communicating information. The design has been adopted by many, and Morrison is working on experiments to study the effect of different poster designs.
Engaging Landowners in Conservation
Tools for Engaging Landowners Effectively (TELE) has released Engaging Landowners in Conservation: A Complete Guide to Designing Programs and Communications.The guide is based on the TELE method and grounded in social science research shown to increase the efficacy of outreach programs.
Two More Chains Releases New Issue
Two More Chains, the newsletter of the Wildland Fire Lessons Learned Center, has released its Spring 2019 issue
America's Longleaf Restoration Initiative 2018 Range-Wide Accomplishment Report
The newly released 2018 ALRI Range-wide Accomplishment Report celebrating a decade of longleaf restoration efforts is now available. The report notes, in part, that over 1.2 million acres of longleaf pine have been planted across the range since 2010, and over 10 million acres have been treated with prescribed fire in the same time frame.

Funding Opportunities

U.S. Endowment for Forestry and Communities Issues RFP For Southeast FireMap Scoping Phase
The U.S. Endowment for Forestry and Communities is seeking proposals through August 9, 5:00 PM ET for the scoping phase of a newly proposed mapping effort for prescribed burns and wildfires in the Southeastern U.S. The purpose of the scoping phase is to provide background, specifications, and recommendations neded for a future entity to build and maintain a Southeastern U.S. FireMap spatial database. A seperate RFP will be issued to develop this database.

Full announcements and applications requirements can be found in the RFP Announcement.

Select New Fire Science Publications for the South

Weiss et al. 2019. Aligning endangered species management with fire-dependent ecosystem restoration: manager perspectives on red-cockaded woodpecker and longleaf pine management actions. Fire Ecology. 15 (19). https://doi.org/10.1186/s42408-019-0026-z. Open Access.

Flanagan et al. 2019. Quantifying carbon and species dynamics under different fire regimes in a southeastern U.S. pineland. Ecosphere. 10 (6). https://doi.org/10.1002/ecs2.2772. Open Access.

Cruz and Alexander 2019. The 10% wind speed rule of thumb for estimating a wildfire’s forward rate of spread in forests and shrublands. Annals of Forest Science. 76:44. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13595-019-0829-8. Open Access.

Klaus, N. 2019. Fire history of a Georgia montane longleaf pine (pinus palustris) community. Georgia Journal of Science. 77 (2). https://digitalcommons.gaacademy.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1161&context=gjs. Open Access.

Abrams and Nowacki 2019. Global change impacts on forest and fire dynamics using paleoecology and tree census data for eastern North America. Annals of Forest Science. 76(8).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13595-018-0790-y. Open Access.

DeFlorio-Barker et al. 2019. Cardiopulmonary effects of fine particulate matter exposure among older adults, during wildfire and non-wildfire periods, in the united States 2008-2010. Environmental Health and Perspectives. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP3860. Open Access.

Dell et al. 2019. Interaction diversity maintains resiliency in a frequently disturbed ecosystem. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. 7:145.  https://doi.org/10.3389/fevo.2019.00145. Open Access.

Coughlan et al. 2018. A global analysis of hunter-gatherers, broadcast fire huse, and lightning-fire-prone landscapes. Fire.1(3):41. https://doi.org/10.3390/fire1030041. Open Access.

Clements et al. 2019. Fire FireFlux II experiment: a model-guided field experiment to improve understanding of fire-atmosphere interactions and fire spread International Journal of Wildland Fire.  https://doi.org/10.1071/WF18089. Open Access.

Mugnanoi et al. 2019. Longleaf pine patch dynamics influence ground-layer vegetation in old-growth pine savanna. Forests 10(5):389. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10050389. Open Access.

Robertson et al. 2019. Patchy fires promote regeneration of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) in pine savannas. Forests 10(5): 367. https://doi.org/10.3390/f10050367. Open Access.

Bar et al. 2019. Fire effects on tree physiology. New Phytologist. https://doi.org/10.1111/nph.15871 Open Access.


 

Upcoming Events

Prescribed Fire Council Meetings
  • August 8 - Texas Prescribed Fire Council First Annual Meeting, Austin, TX
  • August 14-15 - North Carolina Prescribed Fire Council Meeting, Swansboro, NC
  • September 5 - Alabama Prescribed Fire Council Meeting, Clanton, AL
  • September 18 - North Florida Prescribed Fire Council Meeting, Tallahassee, FL
  • September 24 – Louisiana Prescribed Fire Council Meeting, Alexandria, LA
  • September 24-25 - South Carolina Prescribed Fire Council Meeting, Newberry, SC
  • October 4 – Central Florida Prescribed Fire Council
Training Opportunities & Workshops
Conferences, Festivals, & Other Events
Subscribe
Website
Facebook
Twitter
YouTube


           

SFE is administered as a collaborative partnership by faculty and staff at the University of Florida, Tall Timbers Research Station and North Carolina State University. SFE is funded by the Joint Fire Science Program through an agreement with the U.S. Forest Service Southern Research Station. SFE serves the Southeastern U.S. as part of the Fire Science Exchange Network. Connect with your local network at www.firescience.gov.

Copyright © Southern Fire Exchange, All rights reserved.
You are recieving this email because you are subscribed to the Southern Fire Exchange email list.

Our mailing address is:
Southern Fire Exchange 
13093 Henry Beadel Drive
Tallahassee, FL 32312

Want to change how you receive these emails?
You can update your preferences or unsubscribe from this list.