HTI SCHOLARS EN ACCIÓN
Choppy waters leads to transformative understandings
The John Wesley Medical Boat sailed the Amazon river in April 2018, with volunteers from the Florida Conference of the United Methodist Church and the Methodist Church of Brazil, to serve the indigenous villages along the Amazon River and its tributaries. Among the crew members was Rev. Dr. Armando J. Rodríguez
(2003-2004 HTI Dissertation Year Scholar), tasked to provide pastoral care to approximately 600 families. Rodríguez shared, “I saw the hand of God guiding us and uniting us with brothers and sisters from so many distant places. As we worked together, we began to experience a holistic way of providing medical and spiritual support.” His most vivid and also transformative experience happened when he was climbing into a canoe to reach a family and the choppy waters made him feel uneasy, and at that moment, a local community pastor perceiving Rodríguez’s hesitancy to climb into the boat, pulled out his Bible, and read: “Do not fear, for I have redeemed you; I have summoned you by name; you are mine. When you pass through the waters, I will be with you; and when you pass through the rivers, they will not sweep over you.” From this experience and others, Rodríguez realized that we all need each other always, and that “en conjunto
” we learn to appreciate the gifts of each member of a community. Together, we build each other up when we are most vulnerable.
Rodríguez is the Senior Pastor of First United Methodist Church in Barstow, FL and Adjunct Professor of Bible at Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary
This past March, the United Methodist News Service released a report
on this vital medical missionary trip.
Opening the door to the Latinx community and students at Bethel
Providing New Testament seminars to Latinx communities and students has become a way for Bethel to attract students. These seminars cover Paul's Epistles, the Four Gospels, and now the Book of Revelation provided by Dr. Juan Hernández Jr.
(2004-2005 Dissertation Scholar and HTI Mentor). This last seminar on Revelation, given in Spanish on March 30, attracted more than 160 participants which included entire families, groups from various churches, as well as both Protestants and Catholics. Hernández shared, “my real desire is more than simply to put stuff in their heads. I’m very interested in inspiring them to engage the life of the mind.” The event has also served to open Bethel's doors to the Latinx community with an increasing number of students from this community considering a liberal arts education at Bethel. One of the participants expressed, “Some of the ideas [Hernández] is teaching are so deep. Every single thing he’s been teaching is something new.” Read more about this event at the Bethel University Clarion
Accident Turned into an Award
An accidental discovery while working on the Josef Schmid’s landmark German study of Revelation’s Greek manuscript tradition led Dr. Juan Hernández Jr.
to translate it into English. His persistence, attention to detail, and insights, helped Hernández overcome several formidable challenges, including having no contract, no copyright, no support or help. Finally, 70 years after its original publication, an English translation of Studies in the History of the Greek Text of the Apocalypse: The Ancient Stems
was available. The volume, with a new critical introduction taking into account 21st century developments, is now an indispensable reference work for anyone working with the Greek text of Revelation. In 2018, Hernández received the Bethel's Faculty Excellence in Scholarship Award, and to mark the occasion, he gave a presentation
on the behind-the-scenes story of the translation.
HTI Mentoring Visit includes opportunity for a Department Wide Lecture
During an HTI mentoring visit with HTI scholar Gerardo Corpeño, Dr. Leopoldo (Leo) A. Sánchez M.
(2002-2003 HTI Dissertation Year Scholar, HTI Mentor) was invited to give the inaugural Knoedler Professorship of Theology Lecture in the area of systematic theology in the Department of Biblical and Theological Studies at Wheaton College
. The lecture entitled "Spirit Christology as a Lens for Approaching Sanctification" explored themes and arguments in Dr. Sánchez's book Sculptor Spirit
(IVP Academic 2019), his latest and second book in the field of Spirit Christology. Reflecting on his own immigrant identity, Dr. Sánchez spoke of "the Spirit's work of forming human persons after the likeness of Christ, particularly in His self-identification and engagement with vulnerable and forgotten strangers with accents who are often seen as unworthy of participating in the blessings of the kingdom." Latinx graduate students had the opportunity to attend a lunch meeting with Sánchez, who also guest lectured for a graduate class in Christology, and attended collegial meetings with Dr. M. Daniel Carroll R. (Rodas)
and Dr. Carlos Sosa, Latinx faculty at Wheaton. Students and faculty alike commented on the blessing of having a senior Latinx scholar in their midst at a time when Wheaton has made a commitment to diversity one of its top four strategic priorities. A great model to follow!
Prophetic text speaking pragmatically in the name of social justice at UPenn
While troubling, New York Times headlines that speak of religious liberals ‘sitting out of politics for 40 years’ should push us to think more carefully and critically about how prophetic texts can speak to the pragmatic world of politics in the name of social justice. This lead to Dr. Anthea Butler from the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Pennsylvania to invite Dr. L. Benjamin Rolsky
(2011-2012 HTI Doctoral Scholar) to give a talk entitled "In Defense of the Public: Religion, American Liberalism, and the Production of the Christian Right,” at the department penultimate Religious Studies Colloquium. Rolsky shared arguments concerning the Religious Left and its contemporary manifestation in public life, stating that for too long, religious liberals have largely abdicated their position as stewards of the public square despite their fundamental contributions to it. Dr. Rolsky’s talk was well received and the audience also asked questions about his forthcoming monograph, The Rise and Fall of the Religious Left: Politics, Television, and Popular Culture in the 1970s and Beyond,
available October 2019.
HTI Mentor’s writings used to support Cardinal Tagle’s address
In the recent Vatican Summit on the Protection of Minors on February 21-24, Cardinal Luis Antonio Tagle of Manila, Philippines acknowledged the assistance of the writings of several theologians in the preparation of his opening address to the cardinals and bishops. Cardinal Tagle mentioned writings from Dr. Roberto Goizueta
(HTI Mentor), Professor Emeritus of Catholic Theology at Boston College. Cardinal Tagle counseled his listeners, “to be aware that victim-survivors suffer great stress, heightened anxiety and depression, lowered self-images and interpersonal conflicts that arise from the inner brokenness, and tragically, all of this has led to some suicides.” He urged church leaders that they prepare themselves to assist and offer resources. In his final remarks he implored leaders to continually walk in solidarity with those profoundly wounded by abuse at their own pace, building trust, providing unconditional love and repeatedly asking for forgiveness in the full recognition that we do not deserve that forgiveness in the order of justice but can only receive it when it is bestowed as a gift and grace in the process of healing.
Dr. Goizueta has served as President of the Catholic Theological Society of America and the Academy of Catholic Hispanic Theologians of the United States (ACTHUS). He has published and lectured extensively in the areas of U.S. Latinx theology, liberation theology, and theological aesthetics. This is another reminder of the global impact of Latinx theologians’ work.
Reflections on the Christianity and White Supremacy Conference at Princeton University
As a follow-up to a roundtable gathering in 2018, the Dean and Associate Dean of Religious Life and of the Chapel at Princeton University, Rev. Dr. Boden and Rev. Dr. Thames invited faith leaders to the “Christianity and White Supremacy: Heresy and Hope” conference on March 29 and 30. Among those leaders was Dr. Patrick Reyes
(2019-2020 HTI Book Prize Winner). The conference also included panelist Dr. Eric Barreto
(2008-2009 HTI Dissertation Scholar). Reyes reflects on the experience, “On the first night, a panel framed the conversation by naming the problem of Christianity and White Supremacy: the doctrine of discovery (Mark Charles), the violence of the colonial imagination (Dr. Eric Barreto), theological bankruptcy (Dr. Yolanda Pierce), white bullsh*t (Dr. Andrew Wymer), and a hermeneutics of suspicion of a single dominant narrative (Dr. Josiah Young). Reflecting on the context, Dr. Reyes shared, “This framework was powerful for me because it did not shortchange the nuance of our respective communities to simple binaries. It was a rare space with the right group of religious leaders, who acknowledged that the problem of white supremacy and its family of associated ‘-isms’ is not solvable, let alone discussable, without providing space for the nuances of the varied experiences of people of color and other marginalized people. It is clear that now more than ever, we need space to strategize in the company of communities with very different histories and perspectives. It was life-giving to hear our complex histories of violence and subjugation told in a shared space and workshopped for a better future. If more gatherings of people of color were structured this way, we might have a better chance at a unified strategy for the liberation of all people.”
HTI MEMBER SCHOOLS EN ACCIÓN
Fuller looks to HTI and ATSI to support its students
On April 5, Dr. Amos Young and Dr. Oscar García-Johnson
(HTI Steering Committee Member and Mentor) invited HTI executive director, Rev. Joanne Rodríguez,
and Dr. J. Paul Rajashekar, executive director of the Asian Theological Summer Institute (ATSI), to a consultation at Fuller Theological Seminary
. Navigating (White Evangelical) Academia Initiative (NWEA) funded the consultation to share each program’s best practices to cultivate students of color as prospective doctoral students. Fuller Theological Seminary’s key leaders in attendance included the president, provost, associate provost of equity and inclusion, three deans, VP of recruitment and marketing, three PhD program directors, four ethnic center directors (Centro Latino, William E. Pannell Center for African American Church Studies, Korean Studies Center, and Asian American Center) and a representative of the Fuller Foundation. This invitation came at a time when Fuller is making a major transition, and they wholeheartedly want to assess where they are, what is working, and what needs to change to improve addressing the needs of students and faculty of color.
Understanding the so-called “Immigration Crisis”
If you want to understand the current Central American migration crisis, then Oscar Martínez’s newest book, El Niño de Hollywood: Cómo Estados Unidos y El Salvador moldearon a un sicario de la Mara Salvatrucha 13
(2018) is a must read. This book represents a distinct perspective and approach to investigative journalism – not a quick, sensationalized story but rather, in-depth reporting after extensive community integration and ongoing cultivation of trust and understanding.
Martínez is a renowned Salvadoran investigative journalist, co-founder of elfaro.net
, author of The Beast: Riding the Rails and Dodgning Narcos on the Migrant Trail
and A History of Violence
: Living and Dying in Central America
, and recipient of multiple international awards for journalistic excellence. Princeton Theological Seminary’s
community had the great fortune of interacting with him at “Between Expulsion and Resistance: A conversation on the Crisis in Central America” on February 15, during an event moderated by Francisco Peláez-Díaz
(2018-2019 HTI Dissertation Scholar), and supported by Hispanic Theological Initiative, Princeton Theological Seminary’s Latinx Collegium, and Princeton University’s Migration, Borders & Global Crisis IHUM Reading Group.
Martínez spoke about how the widespread gang violence in Central America is the main push factor behind migration to the United States. He also identified the United States’ intervention in Central America in the 1980s as the root of such violence. Civil wars backed by the United States forced many to migrate to a country that was not receptive or supportive of those fleeing persecution. Due to lack of social resources, many of these young migrants became gang members in Los Angeles, and were subsequently deported. Upon return to El Salvador, these individuals formed large networks throughout the Northern Triangle (El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala), which has become one of the most dangerous regions in the world.
Martínez’s presentation and work are crucial for understanding the so-called “immigration crisis” that dominates the current administration’s political agenda. His journalism helps us to consider more effective solutions to the problem of irregular migration than simply law enforcement and border security. After the presentation, attendees inquired about the specific responsibilities of government, churches, and institutions of higher education in the United States in responding to this situation.
Pelaez-Díaz highlights the importance of Martínez’s work, "I believe that theologians, religious leaders, and people of faith must listen to the voices of those who have been silenced in this conversation—namely, the voices of immigrants and the victimized, which are well represented in Martínez’s work."
Re-imagining Preaching for a New Era
The Spanish Engle Institute took place on May 11 at Princeton Theological Seminary
. Overall, the Engle Institute’s goal was to nurture and strengthen the craft of those who preach. The Spanish Engle, through interactive workshops, seminars, plenary, and conversation, examined the realities of the Latinx congregational and community life experience and the manner by which preaching can become even more relevant. The event began with Dr. Eric Barreto
(2008-2009 HTI Dissertation Scholar, HTI Mentor and Steering Committee member) sharing an ad that showcases Coca-Cola celebrating diversity and being more inclusive than many churches. His presentation was followed by Alexandra Zareth Canales, who engaged the audience by asking them what they are most comfortable and least comfortable preaching about, and proceeded to engage the importance of preaching on challenging topics, and how best to do this with integrity and care for the congregation. Participants also heard from chaplain and Pastor Ramón Orostizaga who shared his story of learning, growing, and preaching in a multiethnic and multigenerational church after immigrating to the United States from Chile. He presented on linguistic and cultural differences that might challenge and strengthen participants as preachers and pastors. Rev. Ruth-Aimée Belonni-Rosario Govens talked about preparing a dangerous sermon by using the examples given in Frank A. Thomas’s book titled, How to Preach a Dangerous Sermon
. And in Danny Roman Gloro’s presentation, he emphasized that pastors cannot ignore social media, and talked about how best to engage different audiences through social media with integrity. Rev. Carmen Rosario shared, “It was a powerful day filled with important lessons and studies that I will take home to practice with and for my congregation.”
Symposium at The University of Chicago brings to life a Revolutionary Saint
HTI received an e-mail from Héctor Varela-Rios
(2019-2010 HTI Dissertation Year Scholar) sharing his excitement regarding the Lumen Christi Institute symposium which took place on April 11, at The University of Chicago Divinity School,
on the book, Revolutionary Saint: The Theological Legacy of Óscar Romero
(Orbis Books, 2018) by Dr. Michael E. Lee
(2003-3004 HTI Dissertation Scholar, HTI Mentor, HTI Book Prize Winner). This was the first time Varela-Rios experienced an all-HTI Scholars’ panel conversation. To begin the symposium, Lee presented a framework of Saint Óscar Romero’s life and began by stating, that “far from being an academic theologian disconnected from his flock, Romero was deeply and inextricably entangled in the lived experiences of his fellow Salvadorans. This connection was deeply evident in his homilies, mission, and ultimately his death, but also by three interconnected theological concepts: conversion, discipleship, and martyrdom. For Lee, Romero’s conversion was a life-long event. His discipleship was entrenched in lo cotidiano
(the everyday), as he ventured outside the relative safety of the Church and suffered among the people. Romero’s martyrdom is vindicated by his canonization, which confirms that he was sacrificed for his faith and for the faithful (best evidenced by his assassination while giving Mass).”
Panel respondent Dr. Peter Casarella
(HTI Mentor and HTI Consortium Chair Elect), praised the book for its depth and scholarship, highlighting the productive ways in which Lee’s research conveyed the theological importance of Romero’s life and work. Second panel respondent, Dr. Carmen Nanko-Fernández
(HTI Mentor) shared how constructively and provocatively Romero made deft use of mass media and this eventually made him a contemporary social media figure. In her closing remarks, she begged the question, “How would Romero react to the current treatment of migrants in the United States?” illuminating his relevance now and for generations to come. In the end Varela-Rios shared, “The panel was very successful in presenting the gist and implications of Dr. Lee’s book. It generally found a receptive audience although certain questions illustrated that we still have plenty of work to do. ‘Miles to go before we sleep,’ writes the poet Robert Frost. In any case, this all-HTI panel marks a milestone in our journey.”
The panel was moderated by Raúl Zegarra
(2019-2020 HTI Dissertation Year Scholar).
The University of Notre Dame hosts The Romero Days Conference "Belonging: The Church of Romero and the Gangs"
Endemic gang vi
olence ravages Saint Óscar Romero’s homeland, disrupting communities and distressing families in the already politically unstable and poverty-stricken El Salvador. The Romero Days Conference "Belonging: The Church of Romero and the Gangs" held at the University of Notre Dame
, March 18-20, analyzed how Romero would respond to the violence today. The presentations and testimonies shed light on the sheer complexities of El Salvador’s ubiquitous gangs and the historical and socio-political factors that contributed to their uprising. The speakers included people who are taking creative grassroots approaches, like poetry and hip-hop, to engage the youth involved in the gangs. In the online newspaper Crux
, Dr. Peter Casarella
(HTI Mentor, HTI Steering Committee Chair Elect) mentions, “both the renewal of the individual and the renewal of social and political structures must be addressed.” Romero, who was first and foremost a pastor to his people, had this in mind. The on-the-ground work includes taking the time to visit prisons and listen to people’s stories so that a path to healing may begin.
Rocío Cortés-Rodríguez, PhD. Candidate in the Department of Theology, World Religions, and World Church at the University of Notre Dame, attended the conference and writes that one of the most significant encounters for her was the conversation with Fr. Gustavo Gutiérrez and Jenna Knapp, authors of the book Trás la Mascara de un Pandillero
(2013)—a book that includes poems of young people who currently inhabit El Salvador's youth detention centers. Cortés-Rodríguez writes, “
Jenna's book is not only a compilation of poems written by Salvadoran youngsters that have been involved in the gangs, but an illustration of how, when encountering the right person, people can recover themselves out of their past experiences and find new paths in their lives.”
Fr. Gutiérrez, who wrote the preface of Knapp's book, suggests that in theology, no grandiose words could ever replace the value of deeds, because action implies a serious commitment to lived reality—which Romero embodied with grace and love.
HTI PARTNERS EN ACCIÓN
AETH in collaboration with the Inter American University of Puerto Rico
Together with the Inter American University of Puerto Rico, the Association for Hispanic Theological Education (AETH)
organized the conference, “Faith in Action: Immigration and Diaspora,” on April 26 and 27 in Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico. This conference was filled with important data, lived out stories, and theological reflection on how to understand, care for, and stand in solidarity with our immigrant brothers and sisters. In the opening lecture “Xenophobia or Xenophilia: Pastoral and Prophetic Responses to Immigration and Diaspora,” Rev. Dr. Gabriel Salguero
(2003-2004 Comprehensive Exams Scholar), president and founder of the National Latino Evangelical Coalition (NaLEC), shared his concern regarding migration not being considered a discipline in seminaries as it is the one consistent topic throughout the Bible.
Rev. Dr. Alexia Salvatierra, affiliate professor for the Latino Center at Fuller Theological Seminary
, gave a data overview of Hispanic-Latinx immigration in the United States; and Sandra Ovalle, immigration campaign coordinator for Sojourners in Washington, DC., showed participants how she physically and legally walks with immigrants as they navigate the evermore challenging legal system of the United States. Dr. Leopoldo A. Sanchez M
. (2002-2003 HTI Dissertation Scholar and HTI Mentor), talked about how immigration calls us to a theology of justice and to embrace and care for immigrants. Dr. Agustina Luvis Núñez, professor of theology at the Evangelical Seminary of Puerto Rico, gave specific examples of how Dominican migrant women are abused and not adequately paid. Karla González Cruz, Founder and Executive Director of the Puerto Rico Alliance against Human Trafficking, Inc. warned us about how churches need to be vigilant with their hiring practices because human trafficking is happening within church walls. The conference ended with a sermon by historian and prolific writer Dr. Justo L. González
(former HTI Executive Director).
New study plans to promote racial equity
On March 15, HTI executive director Rev. Joanne Rodríguez
participated in a study performed by The Christian Racial Equity and Inclusion (CREI) Center at Villanova University. CREI is a new organization that received funding from the Lilly Endowment Inc.
to conduct a national survey in 2019. Through this funding, CREI will continue studying the additional areas of racial dynamics that were addressed in the book Divided by Faith: Evangelical Religion and the Problem of Race in America,
by Dr. Michael Emerson. The goal of the CREI is to help leaders promote racial equity and inclusion in Christian organizations and society in general by giving voice to those who are not fully heard. The study is being performed at a national level and includes approximately 2500 respondents (1000 white, 400 Black, 400 Hispanic, 400 Asian, and 300 US teens). The three organizations that partnered to receive the Lilly grant – North Park University, Barna Group, and ReNew Partnerships – realized that they are all lead by white leadership and they plan to form a diverse Leadership Council to provide leadership for all aspects of the CREI. In particular, they are looking for support with research methods, data collection, participants’ perspectives, data analysis, resource development, and coaching and training.
Celebrating, Excelencia in Education Quinceañera!
Since its establishment in 2004, Excelencia in Education
has made an immense impact on Latinx student achievement through influencing education policy at the institutional, state, and national levels and advocating for the use of evidence-based practices and strategies that contribute to the success of all. This quinceañera
celebration honors the hard work in Latinx student success in higher education. Your HTI is extremely grateful to receive the Examples of Excelencia
Award at the Graduate Level in 2010 and to continue to have Excelencia
in Education as a partner. ¡Felicidades!
Hispanic Summer Program Turns 30!
HTI congratulates the Hispanic Summer Program
(HSP) on reaching this milestone! Many HTI graduates have had the privilege to support HSP’s mission to “supplement and enrich the theological and ministerial education being offered in ATS seminaries and universities, with academic courses and other activities directly addressing Latinx history, ministry, and theology.” During all these years, HSP has trained many students and has made a difference in each one of its sponsoring institutions. We wish you many more years of continued success!
Reading In-Between: How Minoritized Cultural Communities Interpret the Bible in Canada
by Néstor Medina
, Alison Hari-Singh, Hyeran Kim-Cragg
Pickwick Publications (February 18, 2019)
This volume presents a tapestry of narratives in which the lived experiences of eight racially minoritized theologians and biblical scholars are woven together to present an interdisciplinary exploration of the direct impact that ethnocultural traditions have in shaping the way people read and interpret the biblical text. Moving beyond traditional approaches to biblical hermeneutics steeped in Euro-normativity, Canadian scholars from Latino/a, Chinese, Korean, Indian, Cree, and AfriCaribbean backgrounds draw on their respective locations to articulate how their communities engage the Bible. Together they show that ethnicity and cultural tradition enrich how different communities weave their life stories with the biblical text in hope of finding wisdom within it. By focusing on questions rooted in their particular traditions, these diverse hermeneutical engagements show narrative to be central to the interpretive task within diverse ethnocultural communities.
Anointed Teaching: Partnership with the Holy Spirit (Enseñando con unción: colaborando con el Espíritu Santo)
by Dr. Octavio Esqueda and Dr. Robert W. Pazmiño
Publicaciones Kerigma (February 18, 2019)
English and Spanish
The book is a theological, pastoral and educational exploration of Christian distinctives that provide a practical pneumatology for teaching today. It proposes how Christian teachers can respond to their Regenerate, Communal, and Spirit-filled identity and calling by working in partnership with the Holy Spirit. The spiritual fruits of liberation (salvation), celebration (worship) and sustenance (growth and edification are explored in relation to teaching anointed by the Spirit.
Knowing Our Faith: A Guide for Believers, Seekers, and Christian Communities
by Justo L. Gonzalez
Eerdmans (March 12, 2019)
“I do not hope to convince you so that you will believe,” says Justo González to open this brief book on the basics of Christianity. “That is to be left to the Holy Spirit. I write to you because you share the faith by which I live. I write so that you may share my joy in seeking to understand better this truth that our hearts believe and love.”
In Knowing Our Faith
González introduces the Christian faith in direct, contemporary language that does not assume prior knowledge. While recognizing the existence of various denominations and theological positions, González focuses on the core faith of the Christian church through the centuries. Covering all the key topics—revelation, God, Jesus Christ, the Spirit, the church, Christian hope, and others—Knowing Our Faith
will help readers to understand the Christian faith better—and, above all, to live it better.
In the Logos edition, this volume is enhanced by amazing functionality. Important terms link to dictionaries, encyclopedias, and a wealth of other resources in your digital library. Perform powerful searches to find exactly what you’re looking for. Take the discussion with you using tablet and mobile apps. With Logos Bible Software, the most efficient and comprehensive research tools are in one place, so you get the most out of your study.
Place and Identity in the Lives of Antony, Paul, and Mary of Egypt: Desert as Borderland
by Dr. Peter Anthony Mena
Religion and Spatial Studies
Palgrave Macmillan; 1st ed. 2019 edition (April 24, 2019)
In this book,
Mena looks closely at descriptions of space in ancient Christian hagiographies and considers how the desert
relates to constructions of subjectivity. By reading three pivotal ancient hagiographies―the Life of Antony
, the Life of Paul the Hermit
, and the Life of Mary of Egypt
―in conjunction with Gloria Anzaldúa’s ideas about the US/Mexican borderlands/la frontera,
Mena shows readers how descriptions of the desert in these texts are replete with spaces and inhabitants that render the desert a borderland or frontier space in Anzaldúan terms. As a borderland space, the desert functions as a device for the creation of an emerging identity in late antiquity―the desert ascetic. Simultaneously, the space of the desert is created through the image of the saint. Literary critical, religious studies, and historical methodologies converge in this work in order to illuminate a heuristic tool for interpreting the desert in late antiquity and its importance for the development of desert asceticism. Anzaldúa’s theories help guide a reading especially attuned to the important relationship between space and subjectivity.
Spirit Outside the Gate: Decolonial Pneumatologies of the American Global South
by Oscar García-Johnson
IVP Academic (July 23, 2019)
Throughout the history of the Christian church, two narratives have constantly clashed: the imperial logic of Babel that builds towers and borders to seize control, versus the logic of Pentecost that empowers "glocal" missionaries of the kingdom life. To what extent are Westernized Christians today ready for the church of the Pentecost narrative? Are they equipped to do ministry in different cultural modes and to handle disruption and perplexity? What are Christians to make of the Holy Spirit's occasional encounters with cultures and religions of the Americas before the European conquest? Oscar García-Johnson explores a new grammar for the study of theology and mission in global Christianity, especially in Latin America and the Latinx "third spaces" in North America. With an interdisciplinary, "transoccidental," and narrative approach, Spirit Outside the Gate
offers a constructive theology of mission for the church in global contexts. Building on the familiar missiological metaphor of "outside the gate" established by Orlando Costas, García-Johnson moves to recover important elements in ancestral traditions of the Americas, with an eye to discerning pneumatological continuity between the pre-Columbian and post-Columbian communities. He calls for a "rerouting of theology"―a realization that theology cannot make its home in Christendom but is a global creation that must come home to a church without borders. In this volume García-Johnson